Historical resources

Most of these links are found in the Panther Mountain: Caroline’s Story bibliography. I will update the list here and add more resources as time goes on.


Bowen, Elias. Slavery in the Methodist Episcopal Church. Auburn, NY: William J. Moses, 1859. Google Books e-book. http://books.google.com/books/about/Slavery_in_the_Methodist_Episcopal_Churc.html?id=MVsSAAAAIAAJ.

Brown, William Griffee. Bethel Church: Oldest Church in Nicholas County. Nicholas County, 1952.

Brown, William Griffee. History of Nicholas County, West Virginia. Nicholas County, WV: Higginson, 1954.

Callahan, James Morton. Semi-Centennial History of West Virginia. Semi-Centennial Commission of West Virginia, 1913. E-book from Hathi Trust Digital Library. http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=pst.000020054939;view=1up;seq=11.
Campbell, Edward. Nicholas County, (West) Virginia, Records of the Pioneers, 1818–1860. Upper Glade, WV: Webster County Historical Society, 1985.

Conser, S. L. M. Virginia After the War: An Account of Three Years’ Experience in Reorganizing the Methodist Episcopal Church in Virginia at the Close of the Civil War. Indianapolis: Baker-Randolph, 1891. E-book. Internet Archive. http://archive.org/stream/virginiaafterwa00consgoog#page/n4/mode/2up.

De Vinné, Daniel. The Methodist Episcopal Church and Slavery: A Historical Survey of the Relation of the Early Methodists to Slavery. New York: Francis Hart, 1857. http://archive.org/stream/methodistepiscop00devi#page/n3/mode/2up.

Emmick, David J. The Amick Partisan Rangers. iUniverse, 2007. http://bit.ly/1ANIK6I.

Emmick, David. J. Defending the Wilderness. Issaquah, WA: Flying A Books, 2007. http://bit.ly/1Fur0da.

Hymnal of the Methodist Episcopal Church. New York: Nelson & Phillips; Cincinnati: Hitchcock & Walden, 1878. E-book. Internet Archive. https://archive.org/stream/hymnalmethodist08churgoog#page/n4/mode/2up.

Lee, Luther, and E. Smith. The Debates of the General Conference of the M.E. Church, May 1844. New York: O. Scott, 1845. Published for the Wesleyan Methodist Connection of America. E-book. Internet Archive. https://archive.org/stream/debatesgeneralc00amergoog#page/n18/mode/2up.

Legg, A. J. A History of Panther Mountain Community. Morgantown, WV: Agricultural Extension Division, 1930. Reproduced online on West Virginia Archives and History website. http://www.wvculture.org/history/agrext/panther.html.

Nicholas County Historical and Genealogical Society. Nicholas County History. Summersville, WV: 1985.

Nicholas County Historical and Genealogical Society. Nicholas County, WV Heritage 2000. Summersville, WV: 1985.

Reger, David B. West Virginia Geological Survey. Wheeling, WV: Wheeling News, 1921. E-book. Hathi Trust Digital Library. http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=uc1.b3840864;view=1up;seq=10

Savory’s Compendium of Domestic Medicine: and Companion to the Medicine Chest. Excerpted on Medical Home Remedies website. http://www.doctortreatments.com/19th-century-medicines-healing-drugs-chemicals-herbs.html

Scott, Robert N. War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies. Series 1, vol. 5. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1881. E-book, Cornell University Library, 1995. http://ebooks.library.cornell.edu/m/moawar/text/waro0005.txt.

Sherman, William Tecumseh. General W. T. Sherman as College President: A Collection of Letters. Vol. 1. Collected and edited by Walter L. Fleming. Cleveland, OH: Arthur H. Clark, 1912. Google Books e-book. http://bit.ly/1Fqpg3D.

US Congress. Report of the Joint Committee on the Conduct of the War, 38th Cong., 2d sess. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1865. E-book. Internet Archive. https://archive.org/details/cu31924096461599.

Wilder, Theodore. The History of Company C, Seventh Regiment, O.V.I. Oberlin, OH: J.B.T. Marsh, 1866. E-book. Internet Archive. https://archive.org/details/historyofcompany00wild.

Wilson, Lawrence. Itinerary of the Seventh Ohio Volunteer Infantry, 1861–1864. New York, NY, and Washington, DC: Neale, 1907. E-book. Internet Archive. https://archive.org/details/itineraryofseven00wils.

Young, John H. Our Deportment; or the Manners, Conduct and Dress of the Most Refined Society. Springfield, MA: W.C. King & Co., 1879 and 1882). E-book. Internet Archive, https://archive.org/stream/ourdeportmentor01youngoog#page/n10/mode/2up.

Dissertations and Theses

Foulds, Matthew. “Enemies of the State: Methodists, Secession and the Civil War in West Virginia, 1845–1872.” PhD diss., Ohio State University, 2012. OhioLINK. https://etd.ohiolink.edu/!etd.send_file?accession=osu1337031505&disposition=inline.

Sweet, William Warren. “The Methodist Episcopal Church and the Civil War.” PhD thesis, University of Pennsylvania, 1912. Internet Archive. https://archive.org/details/methodistchurch00sweerich.

Articles and Blog Posts

“American Civil War Recipes: Union Hardtack and Confederate Johnnie Cakes.” AmericanCivilWar.com. http://americancivilwar.com/tcwn/civil_war/civil_war_cooking.html.

“An Attack upon Summersville, Virginia” (letter to the Richmond Examiner, Wednesday, July 30, 1862). NYTimes.com. http://www.nytimes.com/1862/08/07/news/an-attack-upon-summersville-va.html.

AzRA Historical Resources and AzRA Re-Enactors Association/USHist. American Civil War Ladies’ Clothing. http://www.ushist.com/american_civil-war_ladies_clothing_f.shtml.

Bibb, Henry. “Slavery Under Ideal Conditions.” Condensed excerpt from Narrative of the Life and Adventures of an American Slave, 1849. Christian History website, April 1, 1999. http://www.christianitytoday.com/ch/1999/issue62/62h023.html.

“Biography of Martin M. Andrews (1839–1925).” Bay-Journal, 1905. http://bay-journal.com/bay/1he/writings/andrews-martin-m.html.

Burke, Henry. “The Mason-Dixon Line, Part VII—Aunt Jenny.” The River Jordan (blog), May 24, 2011. http://henryrburke.blogspot.com/2011/05/along-mason-dixon-line-part-vii.html.

Campbell, Archibald W. “There Is No Affinity between Eastern and Western Virginia” (extract from an editorial, Wheeling Daily Intelligencer, December 25, 1860). Published in Union or Secession: Virginians Decide, Virginia Memory Online Classroom, Library of Virginia. http://www.virginiamemory.com/online_classroom/union_or_secession/doc/wheelingintelligencer_1860_12_25.

Cantrell, Elaine. “Antebellum and Civil War Weddings” Hope. Dreams. Life… Love (blog), July 10, 2009. http://elainepcantrell.blogspot.com/2009/07/antebellum-and-civil-war-weddings.html.

Carlile, John Snyder. “We Know Our Rights and Dare Maintain Them” (excerpts from address “To the People of North Western Virginia,” Wheeling Daily Intelligencer, May 21, 1861). Published in Union or Secession: Virginians Decide, Virginia Memory Online Classroom, Library of Virginia. http://www.virginiamemory.com/online_classroom/union_or_secession/doc/wheelingintelligencer_1861_05_21.

“Civil War Era Slang and Terms: A Writer’s Guide for the American Civil War.” RootsWeb. http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~poindexterfamily/CivilWar.html.

Costa, Tom. The Geography of Slavery in Virginia. University of Virginia at Wise Library website. http://www2.vcdh.virginia.edu/gos/.

“Courtship Rituals.” The American Wedding: Courtship and Marriage Rituals, 1889–1929. Trail End State Historic Site (blog), August-December 1996. http://www.trailend.co/courtship.html.

“The Day We Celebrate” (editorial). Wheeling Daily Intelligencer, June 20, 1863. Included in the online exhibit A State of Convenience: The Creation of West Virginia. http://www.wvculture.org/history/statehood/daywecelebrate.html.

Dent, Marshall Mortimer. “Prepare for a Separation” (excerpts from Monongalia County convention delegate reports, March 16 and March 23, 1861, Virginia Weekly Star, Morgantown, VA, reprinted in the Richmond Enquirer, March 26, 1861). Published in Union or Secession: Virginians Decide, Virginia Memory Online Classroom, Library of Virginia. http://www.virginiamemory.com/online_classroom/union_or_secession/doc/richmondenquirer_1861_03_26.

Donegan, Richard. “7th Ohio Volunteers at Kessler’s Cross Lanes.” Oberlin Heritage Center website. http://www.oberlinheritagecenter.org/researchlearn/kesslers.

Donnelly, Shirley. “Lots of Things Happened in Nicholas.” Beckley Post-Herald, June 5, 1969, p. 4. Archived in West Virginia Division of Culture and History Library, Charleston, WV.

Emmerth, Barbara Louise. “Slavery in Present West Virginia in 1860.” West Virginia History 21, no. 4 (July 1960): 275–77. http://www.wvculture.org/history/journal_wvh/wvh21–1.html.

“Female Education, December 1830.” Article reprinted from Mrs. Ware’s Magazine, Godey’s Lady’s Book, December 1830, posted on Accessible Archives (blog), December 3, 2012. http://www.accessible-archives.com/2012/12/female-education-december-1830/.

Frey, Robert L. “Methodists.” e-WV/The West Virginia Encyclopedia. http://www.wvencyclopedia.org/articles/1768.

Gorra, Michael. “The Hinge of War: Michael Gorra on the Civil War’s Turning Point.” The Daily Beast, May 13, 2013. http://www.thedailybeast.com/articles/2013/05/13/the-hinge-of-war-michael-gorra-on-the-civil-war-s-turning-point.html.

Gray, Beverly. “The Underground Railroad in Southern Ohio.” The African American Experience in Southern Ohio (blog), 1997. http://www.angelfire.com/oh/chillicothe/ugrr.html.

Hanna, Margaret. “Early Border History and Genealogical Notes of Prominent Border Families.” Reprinted from the Kanawha Gazette, December 27, 1887, and the Staunton Spectator, January 11, 1888. Transcribed by Gladys Lavender for Greenbrier County, West Virginia History and Genealogy Trails website. http://genealogytrails.com/wva/greenbrier/index.html.

“History of Slavery in West Virginia: Underground Railroad.” Serving History (website). Last modified March 3, 2015. http://www.servinghistory.com/topics/History_of_slavery_in_West_Virginia::sub::Underground_Railroad.

Kansas Historical Society. “Slave Shackle.” Kansapedia. http://www.kshs.org/kansapedia/slave-shackle/18726.

Library of Congress. “15th Amendment to the Constitution.” Primary Documents in American History (web guide). http://www.loc.gov/rr/program/bib/ourdocs/15thamendment.html.

MacLean, Maggie. “Nancy Hart Douglas: Confederate Spy and Guerilla Fighter.” Civil War Women (blog), November 30, 2007. http://civilwarwomenblog.com/nancy-hart-douglas/.

“Marriages of Nicholas County, Virginia, 1818–1861.” West Virginia Regional and History Collection Center, West Virginia University, Morgantown.

Meder-Dempsey, Cathy. “James Sims (1754–1845): Pioneer of Nicholas County, WV.” Opening Doors in Brick Walls (blog), August 25, 2013. https://openingdoorsinbrickwalls.wordpress.com/2013/08/25/james-sims-1754–1845-pioneer-of-nicholas-county-west-virginia/.

“Methodist History: A History of the Denominations Which Form the Heritage of the United Methodist Church in the United States.” Boston University School of Theology Library website. http://www.bu.edu/sthlibrary/library-research-guides/methodism/methodist-history/.

Miller, Gary L. “Historical Natural History: Insects and the Civil War.” American Entomologist 43:227–245, 1997. Reprinted and adapted. http://entomology.montana.edu/historybug/civilwar2/flies.htm.

Mock, Rita Juanita. “Nothing but Crows and Methodist Preachers: A Study in the Saddle of Circuit Riding Preachers.” Songs of Creation website. http://www.angelfire.com/fl4/HisBeauty/pages/circuitriders.html.

National Park Service. “A Timeline of Gauley River History.” http://www.nps.gov/gari/learn/historyculture/a-timeline-of-gauley-river-history.htm.

O’Connor, Bob. “The Underground Railroad in West Virginia.” Examiner.com, May 30, 2012. http://www.examiner.com/article/the-underground-railroad-west-virginia.

Scholastic. “Myths of the Underground Railroad.” Part of online interactive teacher’s guide The Underground Railroad: Escape from Slavery. http://teacher.scholastic.com/activities/bhistory/underground_railroad/myths.htm.

Schwartz, Marcie. “Children in the Civil War, on the Homefront, on the Battlefield.” Civil War Trust website. http://www.civilwar.org/education/history/children-in-the-civil-war/.

Scott, Eugene L. “Sam Black, Famed Methodist Circuit Rider, Left a Landmark: He Had Trouble with the Yankee Soldiers and a Few Drunks at ‘Hells Half Acre.’” Beckley Post-Herald, April 8, 1946. Article transcribed and reprinted on USGENWEB Greenbrier County, WV, by Al Zopp, June 19, 1998. http://files.usgwarchives.net/wv/greenbrier/newspapers/samblack.txt.

Shaffer, Donald R. “The 20 Negro Law and Emancipation.” Civil War Emancipation (blog), October 11, 2012. https://cwemancipation.wordpress.com/2012/10/11/the-20-negro-law-and-emancipation/.

“Shall We Have a New State?” (editorial). Wheeling Daily Intelligencer, October 21, 1861. http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn84026845/1861–10–21/ed-1/seq-2/.

“Slave Catchers.” US Slave (blog), May 2, 2011. http://usslave.blogspot.com/2011/05/slave-catchers.html.

Steelhammer, Rick. “Civil War at 150: Egos Led the Way in W.Va.’s Battle of Carnifex Ferry.” Charleston Gazette/wvgazette.com, September 9, 2011, http://www.wvgazette.com/News/201109091843.

Sutherland, Daniel E. “Guerrilla Warfare in Virginia during the Civil War.” Encyclopedia Virginia. http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/guerrilla_warfare_in_virginia_during_the_civil_war#start_entry.

“The Underground Railroad, c. 1780–1862.” WGBH/PBS Online. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part4/4p2944.html.

“Virginia V. West Virginia.” The American Journal of International Law 5 (April 1, 1911). JSTOR via Internet Archive. https://archive.org/details/jstor-2186732.

“Virginia; The Restored Government of Virginia—History of the New State of Things.” Unattributed letter to the editor of The New York Times, Wednesday, June 22, 1864. http://www.nytimes.com/1864/06/26/news/virginia-the-restored-government-of-virginia-history-of-the-new-state-of-things.html?pagewanted=1.

Williams, Preston. “West Virginia: The State That Said No.” Washington Post, April 12, 2011. http://www.washingtonpost.com/sports/west-virginia-the-state-that-said-no/2011/03/30/AFLxJrQD_story.html.


“1850 Census: Instructions to Marshals and Assistant Marshals.” Minnesota Population Center, University of Minnesota Integrated Public Use Microdata Series (IPUMS USA). https://usa.ipums.org/usa/voliii/inst1850.shtml.

Blair, Jacob Beeson. Letter to Waitman T. Willey. Published in the Wheeling Daily Intelligencer, January 22, 1876. http://www.wvculture.org/history/statehood/blairjb03.html.

Constitution of the State of West Virginia. November 26, 1861. Digitized by National Archives, Center for Legislative Archives. http://www.archives.gov/legislative/features/west-virginia/constitution.html.

“Kanawha Salines Bills of Lading Book (April 27, 1850–May 15, 1882).” PDF. University of Missouri—St. Louis Pott Library Special Collections. http://www.umsl.edu/mercantile/collections/pott-library-special-collections/assets/pdf/kanawha%20salines.pdf.

Library of Virginia. “How Virginia Convention Delegates Voted on Secession, April 4 and April 17, 1861, and Whether They Signed a Copy of the Ordinance of Secession.” PDF. http://www.virginiamemory.com/docs/votes_on_secession.pdf.

McKinley, William. Letter to W. K. Miller, August 11, 1861, Camp at Weston, VA. Civil War Notebook (blog), March 7, 2014. http://civilwarnotebook.blogspot.com/2014/03/private-william-mckinley-to-w-k-miller.html.

“To the Legislature of Virginia” (petition from residents of Nicholas County, VA, on behalf of Isaac Sims). December 9, 1836. Petition 11683632, Race and Slavery Petitions Project, Digital Library on American Slavery, University of North Carolina at Greensboro. https://library.uncg.edu/slavery/petitions/details.aspx?pid=2737.

Databases and Collections

Accessible Archives. Godey’s Lady’s Book Collection. http://www.accessible-archives.com/collections/godeys-ladys-book/.

American Memory. Library of Congress. http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/index.html.

America Singing: Nineteenth-Century Song Sheets. Library of Congress, Rare Book and Special Collections Division. http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/amsshtml/amsshome.html.

Celebrating West Virginia Statehood, June 20, 1863. National Archives, Center for Legislative Archives. http://www.archives.gov/legislative/features/west-virginia/.

Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. Library of Congress. http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/.

Circuit Rider Database. Auglaize County, OH, Genealogy Page. http://ohauglaize.ancestralsites.com/index1.htm.

Dyer, Frederick H. Compendium of the War of the Rebellion: Regimental Histories. Perseus Digital Library, Tufts University. http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A2001.05.0146.

History Engine. University of Richmond. http://historyengine.richmond.edu/pages/home.

“Kessler’s Cross Lanes.” CWSAC Battle Summaries. http://www.nps.gov/abpp/battles/wv004.htm.

Tubb, Benjamin Robert. American Civil War Music (1861–1865) (website). http://www.pdmusic.org/civilwar2.html.

Virginia Secession Convention. University of Richmond. http://collections.richmond.edu/secession/.

Visualizing Emancipation. University of Richmond. http://dsl.richmond.edu/emancipation/#event/26379.

West Virginia Memory Project. West Virginia Division of Culture and History. http://www.wvculture.org/history/wvmemory/index.html.

Genealogical Archival Material

Ancestry.com. Source documents and images, Backus Family Tree.

Bennett, Robert G. (compiler). Genealogy Research Records (notebooks of genealogy records regarding the Bennett family of Nicholas County, WV, inclusive dates 1873–2009). West Virginia and Regional History Center, West Virginia University Library.

FamilySearch. “African-Americans.” Bath County, Virginia, Genealogy Resources. https://familysearch.org/learn/wiki/en/Bath_County,_Virginia#African_Americans.

“Inventory of the Debts Due the Estate of M. J. Landcraft.” West Virginia Will Book, volume 001, 1832–1866. Digitized by FamilySearch at West Virginia Will Books, 1756–1971. http://bit.ly/1SWhkS1.

Meder-Dempsey, Cathy. “Opening Doors in Brick Walls” (genealogical information on Isaac Sims). RootsWeb. http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=meder-dempsey&id=I36671.

Popp, Tony. Genealogical information on the Grose family. Genealogy.com. http://www.genealogy.com/forum/surnames/topics/grose/74/.

Snowden, Thelma Legg. Panther Mountain Pioneers (March 1988) (copy of typewritten genealogical notes and photo concerning the following pioneer families of Nicholas and Monroe counties, W.Va.: Alderson, Drennen, Dunbar, Grose, Halstead, Hull, Johnson, Koontz, Legg, Lemasters, Lutz, Mason, McClung, McCoy, Morris, Nutter, Rader, Ramsey, Renick, Walker, and Wiseman). Library of Virginia Archives, Richmond, VA.